Articles Posted in Pregnancy

But, I’ll do my best to sort it out for you.

Let’s assume that you have a pregnant employee who tells you that she has a lifting restriction. In the past, you have accommodated employees with disabilities who had similar lifting restrictions. You’ve also done the same for folks who got injured on the job and others who lost their Department of Transportation (DOT) certifications.

If you don’t provide the same accommodation to the pregnant employee, have you violated the Pregnancy Discrimination Act?

Continue reading

I know what some of you are thinking, “Seems more like a Tuesday topic to me.” To you folks I say, “Get the hell out of here! YOU’RE NUTS!!!”

Ok, you’re right, let’s start over.

One of the exotic dancers at a Georgia gentlemen’s club got preggers. Wait. Do the kids still say preggers? Yeah, let’s try and be mature about the serious Monday post. A woman who gyrates on stage for dollars, and maybe on customers’ laps too — I don’t know for sure — got pregnant. Hey, look, I’m not judging.

Two months later, she lost her job.

The woman claimed that her employment was terminated due to her pregnancy in violation of Title VII. Continue reading

Fact or Fiction?That’s right folks. It’s time for another edition of “Fact or Fiction” a/k/a “Quick Answers to Quick Questions” a/k/a QATQQ f/k/a “I don’t feel like writing a long blog post.”

Oh, if I had a nickel for every time I got this question from an employer, “Hey Eric. We have this pregnant employee and she is very close to term. We’re concerned that if she continues working all the way up to childbirth, she may harm herself or the fetus. Can we require her to stay home?”

Eek! Check out this recent press release from the EEOC in which the agency announced that it is suing an employer, which allegedly required a pregnant employee to take unpaid leave until she was cleared by a doctor indicating that she could work despite her pregnancy. The EEOC further alleges, when the employee failed to provide a release, and after she and her mother disputed the legality of the requirement, the employee was fired in retaliation.

So, under federal anti-discrimination law, the answer to today’s QATQQ is, generally, fiction.

NoteA United States Supreme Court majority opinion predicted that Title VII, which contains the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, would preempt state law, thereby absolving employers that complied with Title VII from liability for any fetal injury. (Although the concurrence was more skeptical). Further, that same case recognized a narrow safety exception that would allow an employer to remove a pregnant employee from the workplace; namely, in instances in which pregnancy actually interferes with the employee’s ability to perform the job.

//www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0IUR4gkPIE

On the heels of yesterday’s astounding blogging success, “What LeBron’s return teaches employers about accommodating the Mark of the Beast” — Pulitzer, please — I was planning on coming at you today with “Five Workplace Lessons from Dutch Soccer’s Third Place in the World Cup.” It was going to have this cute Orange is the New Black theme, but then, the Twitterz spoke.

Raise your hand if one of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commissioners told you what to blog about today. Quit showing off, Dan Schwartz, put your hand down.

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So, it looks like we’ll be talking pregnancy discrimination today.

Yesterday, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issued Enforcement Guidance on Pregnancy Discrimination and Related Issues, a FAQ and a Fact Sheet for Small Businesses.

A split in opinion among the EEOC Commissioners.

The final vote on the guidance was 3-2 in favor. You can read EEOC Commissioner Feldblum’s on Approval of the Enforcement Guidance here. She praised the Commission’s position in its Enforcement Guidance as “simple” and based “on a plain text reading of the PDA.”

And then you’ve got Commissioner Lipnic’s statement disapproving of the EEOC guidance here. In particular, Commissioner Lipnic questioned the timing of the guidance (right before the Supreme Court is set to rule on this case), and without first making the EEOC’s Guidance available for public comment.

Commissioner Barker too criticized the EEOC Guidance here. In particular, she panned it not only for its timing, but also for requiring employers to provide the types of accommodations for pregnant employees that the Americans with Disabilities Act requires for disabled individuals.

(Commissioners: If you’d like to continue this debate, I have plenty of blog space available for you. It’s not all Ramadan Bagel Parties and me contemplating ADA accommodations for female masturbation. Just sayin’).

Five takeaways for employers.

As you all should know, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, which is part of Title VII, makes it unlawful to discriminate in the workplace based on pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. The new EEOC Guidance, however, highlights a few issues of which employers should take particular note. Here are five of ’em:

  1. Not only is it unlawful to discriminate against an employee who is currently pregnant, but discrimination based on past pregnancy and a woman’s potential to become pregnant also violates the law.
  2. You can’t require a pregnant employee who is able to do her job to take leave — even out of genuine care for the employee or the fetus. More on that here and here.
  3. Lactation is a pregnancy-related medical condition. Duh!
  4. Employers who provide health insurance benefits must also provide insurance that includes coverage of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions.
  5. Employers must offer light duty to pregnant employees if a light duty position is available.

The guidance also includes, well, guidance, on the interplay between pregnancy and the Americans with Disabilities Act and offers a list of employer best practices.

And since we’re on the subject, I’d be remiss if I didn’t ask. If anyone out there is available to babysit my four kids this weekend so that the wife and I catch dinner and the late showing of Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (her choice), holler at me.

 

Last night, having come across this wacky Family Show gif, I couldn’t decide whether to binge watch the first season of Amish Mafia. Again. For the third time.

(And, by third, I mean eighth).

Or dip my English toe into the Breaking Amish pool.

So, in an attempt to get in the mood, I tried to bake a shoofly pie, but, short on blackstap molasses and a replacement plug for my Easy Bake Oven, I quickly audibled to a Fluffernutter.

Because nothing speaks to me to resolve a Wednesday night Amish television dilemma like a Fluffernutter, amirite?

But, two — ok, two-and-a-half — Fluffernutters later, I had a hankering to blog about the Supreme Court’s employment-law docket for next session, which includes a pregnancy discrimination case, involving the manner in which an employer would have to accommodate a pregnant employee.

You can read more about that one here and here.

But, then, my peanut-buttery-marshmallow focus honed in on this recent decision from United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. It involves an employee who returned from maternity leave and, shortly thereafter, applied for a job promotion, only to be bypassed for another candidate. So, she quit and sued for pregnancy discrimination.

Now, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act prohibits discrimination based on pregnancy. It also protects those who have recently given birth…up to a point. That is, a new mom is protected too. But, the passage of time will eventually carry a new mom outside of the protection of the Pregnancy Discrimination Act.

How long you ask? Well, according to the court deciding the employer’s motion to dismiss, about four months, which, ironically, is the time it would take me to master the art of baking shoofly pie.

In denying the motion to dismiss and allowing the bypassed plaintiff to continue to pursue her pregnancy discrimination claim, the court measured the time period from the date of childbirth to the date the plaintiff first applied for the promotion, which was under four months. (Rather than when the employer hired someone else to fill the position, which was beyond four months).

So, employers, learn from the mistake made here and do it right: wait four months and a day before taking adverse employment actions against new moms, don’t allow pregnancy (or recent childbirth) to factor, at all, into your employment decisions. Make sure that your managers, the ones making the decisions, understand that as well. And don’t forget about sex-plus discrimination either.

Hey, how’d that last song get in there? Someone call my music editor!

Image credit: Giphy

Recently, I gave a webinar about the interplay between the Family and Medical Leave Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act. One of the takeaways there was that, when an employee’s 12 weeks of FMLA leave expire, you need to be thinking about ADA implications rather than processing a pink slip at 12 weeks and a day. This is because additional leave may be a reasonable accommodation.

The same issues can arise if you have a pregnant employee. That is, you need to consider the interplay between the Pregnancy Discrimination Act and the ADA.

A recent case shows how the ADA may apply to pregnant employees.

Trevis Reed was a Special Education Teacher in Louisiana, until she was fired from her position. Ms. Reed was pregnant and used all of her allotted leave time from August 2011 from February 2012.

Ms. Reed was scheduled to return to work on February 15, 2011, however her psychiatrist would not clear her to return until two weeks later, on February 28, 2011. The school refused to grant the extra two weeks of leave, and fired Ms. Reed when she failed to return to work on the 15th.

Ms. Reed then sued for violation of the ADA.

Two weeks of additional leave may be a reasonable accommodation.

The school did not challenge that Ms. Reed was disabled. (Note: Pregnancy is not a disability. However, postpartum depression could be). Rather, the school argued that, when it fired Ms. Reed, she was not a qualified individual within the definition of the ADA. That is, she could not perform the essential functions of her job with or without a reasonable accommodation.

Even though the plaintiff’s counsel failed to address the school’s argument that Ms. Reed was not qualified, the Court, on its own examination, still denied the School’s motion for summary judgment. That is, it determined in this opinion that a reasonable jury could conclude that an additional two weeks of leave was a reasonable accommodation for Ms. Reed:

“The Court does not find on this record that Reed’s request for the additional leave was improper, or that it fell beyond the bounds of the general rule that a reasonable accommodation may include “providing additional unpaid leave for necessary treatment.” Nor does the Court find on the existing record that after February 28, 2011 Reed was inhibited from fulfilling the necessary requirements of the job.”

Takeaways for employers

Unfortunately for employers, there is no magic formula to determine how much additional leave, beyond that which an employee has already been allotted, is reasonable. Each case — and each leave scenario — stands on its own set of facts. That said, consider these takeways:

  1. The more leave you initially provide, the tougher it will be to argue that a brief period of subsequent leave is unreasonable.
  2. Denying two weeks of additional leave to a new mom who is suffering from doctor-certified postpartum issues is cold as ice. That’s a great way to earn yourself a jury trial.
  3. Many of PDA/FMLA leaves of absence will involve ADA issues and, thus, foreshadow an interactive dialogue to discuss reasonable accommodations. Don’t wait until leave is about to end to broach this subject. Plan ahead. Communicate with that employee early and often.
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If you’re on LinkedIn, consider joining the discussion of news, trends and insights in employment law, HR, and the workplace, by becoming a member of The Employer Handbook LinkedIn Group. Tell ’em Meyer sent you.

pregnancyposter.pngBack in February, I reported here about the new pregnancy-accommodation law that went into effect in Philadelphia.

The law requires local business to provide reasonable workplace accommodations for employees who have needs related to pregnancy, childbirth, or a related medical condition.

The law also requires Philly employers to post notice of the new law in the workplace.

Here is that poster.

And here is some random music that has nothing to do with pregnancy, but has been burning a hole in my Spotify queue.

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P.S. – If you’re on LinkedIn, consider joining the discussion of news, trends and insights in employment law, HR, and workplace, by becoming a member of The Employer Handbook LinkedIn Group

Thumbnail image for nj.jpgI blogged about it here back in October. My epic Lil’ Za Halloween costume. Both the NJ House and Senate had proposed legislation whereby a female employee affected by pregnancy could not be treated worse than other non-pregnant co-workers, but similar in their ability or inability to work.

Well, now, it’s the law, son! Under the new law, which Governor Chris Christie (R) signed on Tuesday, employers must provide reasonable accommodation to pregnant employees that will allow them to maintain a healthy pregnancy, or who need a reasonable accommodation while recovering from childbirth. Examples include bathroom breaks, breaks for increased water intake, periodic rest, assistance with manual labor, job restructuring or modified work schedules, and temporary transfers to less strenuous or hazardous work. An employer can avoid accommodation if it can establish that doing so would cause it undue hardship.

The new law takes effect immediately.

BTW – How awesome is this kids’ cover of Tool’s Forty Six and 2? Amazing, right?

//www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYKLvYGqaC0